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Scientific research strategy and packaging technology innovation (Part 2)

v. inadvertently, the scientific research work is also very enlightening when "hand in hand" in the thirty-six plan

. For example, in scientific experiments, we often encounter that the progress of work is not as smooth as we imagined. This is a very normal phenomenon. Because scientific workers are originally engaged in exploratory work. If everything goes according to plan, it is not called exploration. When dealing with "abnormal" phenomena, whether to go around, throw away, or be good at catching the signs and searching for the bottom will have completely different effects. Some accidental discoveries can often become a new starting point for research. Successful scientists should be good at finding the steps from the "abnormal" here to become "normal" elsewhere, so as to make new discoveries. In 1912, when Brierley was assigned to trial produce superhard alloy steel in the United States, one day he wanted to dispose of the samples that had been made. He accidentally found that there was no rust in a lot of rusty waste products, which were still shiny with metallic luster. He thought there must be a reason for this. He took it back and retested it. It was found that it was a chromium containing steel with insufficient hardness, which was improved along this formula. Brierley made the world's first non polyurethane reinforced coil composite insulation board, which has been rusted since it entered the market

Fleming was originally a lecturer in bacteriology. When he was studying Staphylococcus, he accidentally found that Staphylococcus in a Petri dish disappeared inexplicably F. He did not ignore this phenomenon. After investigating, he found that some penicillin powder was accidentally mixed into the plate, which led to the invention of penicillin and a series of antibiotics, which was also one of the greatest medical achievements of the 20th century

polyethylene, an important member of modern packaging materials, was also invented under such circumstances. Its course is full of twists and turns. There are both the joy of success and the regret of giving up. Faust and Gibson originally planned to synthesize a new plastic with benzaldehyde and ethylene. They failed repeatedly. One day, they accidentally found a layer of white powder in the reactor. After testing, it was polyethylene. Instead, they specialize in the process of producing polyethylene. When they intend to synthesize it, they can't do it. With our current knowledge, we know that the position of the new energy industry is constantly improving. In the monomer of synthetic polymer, the activity of ethylene is relatively low and difficult to react. After many experiments, they still couldn't succeed, so they gave up. More than ten years later, due to the slight toxicity of PVC, it is not suitable to be used as medicine and food packaging materials. There is an urgent need for non-toxic polyethylene to replace it. Palin and Patton raised the subject of the first two again. After 5O tests under high pressure and high temperature sealing conditions, they still couldn't be synthesized. The first time, the sealing ring of the reactor leaked. They originally wanted to reinstall it. But Yue Lai wanted it to be finished again. As a result, polyethylene was accidentally made this time. It turns out that the catalyst of the reaction can only work with the participation of oxygen

VI. mountains and rivers return to extremes

"mountains and rivers return to doubt. There is no way to obtain aluminum alloy blanks of various shapes. There is another village with bright future". In scientific experiments, this sentence means that hope often appears at the last moment. Manganese can improve the hardness of steel. Before the 1860s, people's experience warned that the content of manganese in steel should not exceed 1.5%, otherwise the steel would be brittle. But at that time, the railway track needed extra hard steel. Hadfield was determined to break into the "forbidden zone". He keeps increasing the manganese content. When the manganese content reaches 3.5%, the steel produced is simply vulnerable. It will break when it is thrown on the ground. Are you going to try it or not? Many people have no confidence. He withstood the pressure of hundreds of failed experiments. With a strong will, he insisted. He believes that manganese and iron have similar chemical properties and should be fusible. Several more tests were carried out. When the manganese content increased to 13%, the manganese steel changed its brittleness, became particularly hard and ductile, and Hadfield succeeded. The principle of prolonging the fresh-keeping period of fruits by gas regulation is to inhibit the respiratory activity of fruits. Keep breathing after picking the fruit. If this physiological activity is too vigorous, the fruit will age and deteriorate too quickly. One way to suppress respiratory activity is to appropriately increase the carbon dioxide concentration in the fruit storage environment (atmosphere inside the package). The carbon dioxide in the air is only 0.4%. What percentage can be increased to achieve the purpose of extending the freshness? If the content of carbon dioxide is excessive, for example, higher than 7 or 8%, it will not achieve the purpose of keeping fresh, but will cause fruit poisoning and death. The above examples show that it is very important to master the "degree" of quantitative and qualitative change in scientific research

VII. Follow the vine and catch the thief and the king

the purpose of scientific research is to crack the unknown. This is like reconnaissance. Reasoning analysis is often used in the process. In the analysis, we can touch the trunk and fruits from the exposed branches and leaves. Sometimes you can also use reverse thinking to infer the reason from the result. The use of Chinese characters in Chinese guessing games is a feature of Chinese culture, which includes reasoning and analysis. For example, there is a lantern riddle in the novel "Li Zicheng": "look at the Peony Pavilion with a lantern in leisure". The answer to the riddle should be "the pen of lighting Linchuan". It turns out that Tang Xianzu, the author of the Peony Pavilion, is from Linchuan, Jiangxi Province. Maybe the author of the lantern riddle thought of this when making riddles. Here, the thinking process of making riddles and guessing riddles happens to be the opposite. Making riddles follows the idea of reading books. Guessing riddles grasp the meaning of "books" and push them upward

if you touch the trunk, fruits, and catch the main contradiction, you can directly point to the main contradiction when solving it

let's return to the topic of antiseptic packaging. Since Pasteur found that "bacteria are the cause of corruption", antiseptic packaging first thought of sterilization. At that time, high temperature was used. Later, many physical and chemical methods were found, such as radiation, preservatives, etc. After in-depth study, it was found that the conditions for bacterial reproduction not only need suitable temperature, but also need a series of factors such as air and water to be suitable at the same time. So. As long as any one of these conditions is removed, bacteria cannot reproduce. According to this principle, a series of new packaging technologies have been developed in the future: vacuum packaging, inflatable packaging (filled with N2, filled with C02), deoxygenation packaging, dehydration packaging. The forms of packaging have been greatly enriched. It's like a tree. Roots, stems, leaves, flowers, etc. are all necessary conditions for fruit. As long as you cut off any one of them, it won't bear fruit. You don't need to cut off all the ways

The invention of shape memory alloy, a smart alloy, is also a vivid example. In the 1960s, Buhler of the U.S. Naval Research Institute happened to find that some straight Taiwan gold wires were bent in the process of studying nickel titanium alloy wires. He didn't let go of this seemingly impossible little thing. He straightened those alloy wires and put them back. As a result, they bent again. After inspection, it is because the bending alloy wire is placed close to the fireplace and the temperature is higher. Following this clue, they found that the arrangement of alloy atoms is related to temperature. The temperature changes. The arrangement changes. The temperature recovers. The arrangement form will also recover. That is, the alloy has the function of "memory" of shape. Shape memory alloys soon became famous. They were successfully applied to lunar antennas and solved a major problem for NASA. Their use is by no means limited to this. I believe that in the future, they will be able to find their use in some special packaging containers. 8、 Divide and conquer divide and conquer divide and conquer is to give full play to the strength of our own side. Divide and conquer is to fully restrict the strength of the other side. The most successful field of this method is the packaging for special purposes and the packaging of dangerous goods. For example, packaging for special purposes, such as drug packaging. In order to improve the efficacy of drugs, it is necessary to release them regularly and quantitatively. Microencapsulation packaging can be used to release them according to the time and dose set by people. This method should be used in the packaging of dangerous goods because most of the dangerous goods themselves are chemically active substances. The primary task of dangerous goods packaging is to ensure safety. The method of isolating them from each other can greatly reduce the risk of reaction Danger of combustion and explosion. In particular, the accuracy of the resistance strain gauge inside the sensor is not high, the anti-aging ability of the glue used to fix the strain gauge is not good, and the material of the sensor is not good, which will affect the accuracy of the sensor. It is the packaging of gas, because the storage and transportation of gas need to be compressed. High pressure gas is more dangerous. The porous material (such as cork) filled in the oxygen bottle is to disperse oxygen in the microporous "Chamber" as far as possible to achieve the purpose of isolation. Pure acetylene is an incompressible gas (it is easy to explode under compression). Therefore, acetylene used to be produced and used locally in the past. It is difficult to realize industrial production. In the 1940s and 1950s, when people studied this problem, they found that acetylene was dissolved in a liquid first, and then the solution was compressed into the porous material (such as silica) in the steel cylinder as the inner package. In this way, acetylene was dispersed twice to maximize their isolation from each other. Through this packaging method, acetylene can be compressed to a pressure of 25 kg/cm2. The new product "dissolved acetylene" was born, thus realizing the safe production, long-distance transportation, metering and use of acetylene, making acetylene a cleaner gas energy, thus solving the problem that has plagued the welding and cutting industry for more than 100 years. At present, the packaging technology is developing rapidly. The packaging industry needs technological upgrading, packaging education The scientific research field needs to speed up the provision of technical support to the industry. Therefore, we need to vigorously carry out experimental scientific research. As a kind of behavioral art, scientific research is very beneficial to its own research. As long as we constantly improve our methods and skills and constantly absorb the nutrition of other fields, we will certainly make the packaging technology have greater and faster development

Fu Xin, School of packaging and printing, Zhuzhou Institute of technology

source: Journal of Zhuzhou Institute of Technology

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